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Friday, July 23, 2010

Хичээл 8 ҮЙЛ ҮГИЙН ЦАГУУД (The tenses of the verb)

ЇЙЛ ЇГИЙН ЦАГУУД
(The tenses of the verb)

Англи хэл єєрєє їйлдэх буюу їйлдэх хэвийн (active) 16 болон бусдын эрхэнд їйлдэх буюу їйлдэгдэх хэвийн (passive) 10 цаг, нийт 26 цагтай.
Жич:
P1 - одоо цагт нєхцєлт їйл їг
P2 - єнгєрсєн цагт нєхцєлт їйл їг / (дїрэм бус нєхцєлт їйл їг)

Їйлдэх хэвийн цагууд
(The active tenses)

Цагууд (Tenses)

Цаг їїсгэх хэлбэр (Form)

Жишээ (Example)

Орчуулга (Translation)

Одоо цагууд
(Present tenses)

Жирийн одоо цаг
(The present indefinite tense)

verb / verb + s (es)

she works

тэр (эмэгтэй) ажилладаг

Одоо їргэлжилж байгаа цаг
(The present continuous tense)

am / are / is + P1 (verb + ing)

he is working

тэр (эрэгтэй) ажиллаж байна

Одоо тєгссєн цаг
(The present perfect tense)

have / has + P2 (verb + ed)

she has worked

тэр ажиллачихаад байж байна

Одоо тєгсєн їргэлжлэх цаг
(The present perfect continuous tense)

have / has been + P1 (verb + ing)

he has been working

тэр ажилласаар байж байна

Єнгєрсєн цагууд
(Past tenses)

Жирийн єнгєрсєн цаг
(The past indefinite tense)

verb + ed(d) {only irregular verb}

she worked

тэр ажилллав

Єнгєрєн їргэлжилсэн цаг
(The past continuous tense)

was / were + P1 (verb + ing)

he was working

тэр ажилласаар байсан

Єнгєрєн тєгссєн цаг
(The past perfect tense)

had + P2 (verb + ed)

she had worked

тэр ажиллачихсан байсан

Єнгєрєн тєгсєн їргэлжлэх цаг
(The past perfect continuous tense)

had been + P1 (verb + ing)

he had been working

тэр ажилласаар байж байсан

Ирээдїй цагууд
(Future tenses)

Жирийн ирээдїй цаг
(The future indefinite tense)

shall / will +verb

she will work

тэр ажиллана

Ирээдїйд їргэлжлэх цаг
(The future continuous tense)

shall / will be + P1 (verb + ing)

he will be working

тэр ажиллаж байх болно

Ирээдїйд тєгсєх цаг
(The future perfect tense)

shall /will have + P2 (verb + ed)

she will have worked

тэр ажиллачихсан байх болно

Ирээдїйд тєгсєн їргэлжлэх цаг
(The future perfect continuous tense)

shall / will have been + P1 (verb + ing)

he will have been working

тэр ажилласаар байж байх болно

Єнгєрсний ирээдїй цагууд
(Future in the past)

Єнгєрсєн цагийн єнгєнєєс эс тухайлах ирээдїй цаг
(The future indefinite in the past tense)

should / would + verb

she would work

тэр ажиллах байсан

Єнгєрсєн цагийн єнгєнєєс ирээдїйд їргэлжлэх цаг
(The future continuous in the past tense)

should / would be + P1 (verb + ing)

he would be working

тэр ажилласаар байх байсан

Єнгєрсєн цагийн єнгєнєєс ирээдїйд тєгсєх цаг
(The future perfect in the past)

should / would have +P2 (verb + ed)

she would have worked

тэр ажиллачихаад байх байсан

Єнгєрсєн цагийн єнгєнєєс ирээдїйд тєгсєн їргэлжлэх цаг
(The future perfect continuous in the past)

should / would have been + P1 (verb + ing)

he would have been working

тэр ажилласаар байж байх байсан

Дїрмийн їйл їгийн цаг їїсгэх хэлбэр

  1. їйл їг нь гийгїїлэгчээр тєгссєн бол "ed" тєгсгєл авна. Жнь: work + ed = worked
  2. їйл їг нь "e" - гээр тєгссєн бол зєвхєн "d" залгана. Жнь: receive + d = recieved
  3. їйл їгийн єргєлттэй битїї їед "ed" залгахдаа сїїлчийн гийгїїлэгчийг хос болгоно. Жнь: stop + ed = stopped
  4. їйл їг нь гийгїїлэгчийн ард "y" тєгсгєлтэй бол "ed" тєгсгєл авах їедээ "y" нь "i" болдог. Жнь: carry + ed = carried
    (гэвч эгшгийн дараах "у" нь єєрчлєгддєггїй. Жнь: obey + ed = obeyed)

Идэвхгїй хэвийн цагууд
(The passive tenses)

Цагууд (Tenses)

Цаг їїсгэх хэлбэр (Form)

Жишээ (Example)

Орчуулга (Translation)

Одоо цагууд
(Present tenses)

Жирийн одоо цагийн идэвхгїй хэв
(The passive present indefinite tense)

am / are / is + P2

I am called

намайг дууддаг
(би дуудагддаг)

Одоо їргэлжлэн байгаа цагийн идэвхгїй хэв
(The passive present continuous tense)

am / are / is being + P2

I am being called

намайг дуудаж байна
(би дуудагдаж байна)

Одоо тєгссєн цагийн идэвхгїй хэв
(The passive present perfect tense)

have / has been + P2

I have been called

намайг дуудлаа
(би дуудагдлаа)

Єнгєрсєн цагууд
(Past tenses)

Жирийн єнгєрсєн цагийн идэвхгїй хэв
(The passive past indefinite tense)

was / were + P2

I was called

намайг дууджээ
(би дуудагджээ)

Єнгєрєн їргэлжилсэн цагийн идэвхгїй хэв
(The passive past continuous tense)

was / were being + P2

I was being called

намайг дуудсаар байсан
(би дуудагдсаар байсан)

Єнгєрєн тєгссєн цагийн идэвхгїй хэв
(The passive past perfect tense)

had been + P2

I had been called

намайг дуудчихсан байсан
(би дуудагдчихсан байсан)

Ирээдїй цагууд
(Future tenses)

Жирийн ирээдїй цагийн идэвхгїй хэв
(The passive future indefinite tense)

shall / will be + P2

I shall be called

намайг дуудна
(би дуудагдна)

Ирээдїйд тєгсєх цагийн идэвхгїй хэв
(The passive future perfect tense)

shall / will have been + P2

I shall have been called

намайг дуудчихсан байх болно
(би дуудагдчихсан байх болно)

Єнгєрсний ирээдїй цагууд
(Future in the past)

Єнгєрсєн цагийн єнгєнєєс эс тухайлах ирээдїй цагийн идэвхгїй хэв
(The passive future indefinite in the past)

should / would be + P2

I should be called

намайг дуудах байлаа
(би дуудагдах байлаа)

Єнгєрсєн цагийн єнгєнєєс ирээдїйд тєгсєх цагийн идэвхгїй хэв
(The passive future perfect in the past)

should / would have been + P2

I should have been called

намайг дуудчихсан байх байлаа
(би дуудагдчихсан байх байлаа)

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